Indicator of the potential acidification of soils and water due to the release of gases such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides.
The effects of chemical substances to terrestrial organisms and terrestrial plants.
The fashion industry value chain is divided by tiers:
Tier 0 - Direct operations of the brand such as stores, warehouses and offices.
Tier 1 - Final assembly of the items, often referred to as cut & sew facility.
Tier 2 - Preparation and production of subcomponents such as fabrics and trims.
Tier 3 - Process of raw material such as yarn production
Tier 4 - Cultivation, production and extraction of raw materials from earth, plants and animals, such as cotton cultivation, sheep farming or extraction of fossil fuels.
Since the Rana plaza disaster in Bangladesh in April 2013, it is the norm in the fashion industry to disclose all tier 1 suppliers, the race to full disclosure of the supply chain is underway, currently focusing on tiers 2-3.
Traceability is the ability to follow the route that a product is undergoing in all it’s production phases. Fashion supply chains are long, complex and dynamic. The ability of a brand to know who makes their clothes is critical in its attempt to measure and reduce impact.
The fast changing pace of the fashion industry, or the mere need to change from season to season, cause brands to lose track of their own supply chain.
Dynamic supply chains demand dynamic solutions, in order to facilitate reliable traceability beyond tier 1, where sub-suppliers change constantly.
How open is the communication of a brand regarding its suppliers and its impact on people and planet.
Transparency is about being open and accepting the fact that not everything is perfect. Brands are increasingly disclosing scientific information about waste management, energy sources or water depletion across their supply chain. Transparency is the key to customer loyalty in the direct to consumer economy, so much that it reduces customer acquisition and customer retention costs (CAC & CRC).